DeRose, Steven J. 1990.
Stochastic Methods for Resolution of Grammatical Category Ambiguity in Inflected and Uninflected Languages.
Ph.D. Dissertation. Providence, RI: Brown University Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences.

This Bibliography originally began on page 267.


[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

A (top)

________. 1982. The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed. Boston : Houghton - Mifflin.

________. 1986. ICAME Bibliography. Newsletter of the International Computer Archive of Modern English (10): 62-79. Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities, Harald Harfagres gate 31, P.O. Box 53, N-5014 Bergen-University, Norway, FAFSRV at NOBERGEN.Bitnet.

Aarts, J. and W. Meijs (eds.). 1984 . Corpus Linguistics: Recent developments in the use of computer corpora in English language research. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Aarts, J. and T. van den Heuvel. 1982. Grammars and Intuitions in Corpus Linguistics. In Johansson (1982) : 66-84.

________. 1985. Computational tools for the syntactic analysis of corpora. Linguistics 23: 303-335.

Abramson, Norman. 1963. Information Theory and Coding. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Introduces the field of Information Theory, with derivations of the fundamental equations and results, and a brief section on applications to natural language.

Adams, Valerie. 1973. An Introduction to Modern English Word-formation. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Anderson, James A. and Gregory L. Murphy. 1986. Psychological Concepts in a Parallel System. In Physica (22D): 318-336.

Describes a neural-modeling approach to recognition of noisy patterns, using high-dimensionality vector operations as memory systems.

Attar, R., Y. Choueka, N. Dershowitz, and A.S. Fraenkel. 1978. KEDMA — Linguistic Tools for Retrieval Systems. In Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (25,1): 52-66.

Atwell, E. S. 1983. Constituent Likelihood Grammar. Newsletter of the International Computer Archive of Modern English (7): 34-66.

________. 1987. Constituent Likelihood Grammar. In Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 57-65.

Atwell, E. S., Geoffrey Leech, and Roger Garside. 1984. Analysis of the LOB Corpus: Progress and Prospects. In Aarts and Meijs (1984).

Ayres, L. P. 1915. A Measuring Scale for Abiliy in Spelling. Russell Sage Foundation. Cited in Condon (1928).

B (top)

Bahl, L. R., F. Jelinek, and R. L. Mercer. 1983. A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Continuous Speech Recognition. IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-5, no. 2: 179-190.

Bates, Madeleine. 1976. Syntax in Automatic Speech Understanding. American Journal of Computational Linguistics, microfiche 45. Cited in Newman (1988).

Beale, Andrew David. 1985a. Grammatical Analysis by Computer of the Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen (LOB) Corpus of British English Texts. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Chicago. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois : 293-298. (online)

________. 1985b. A Probabilistic Approach to Grammatical Analysis of Written English by Computer. In Proceedings of the Second Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Geneva : 159-165. Association for Computational Lingustics. (online)

Blackwell, Sue A. 1985. A Survey of Computer-Based English Language Research. Newsletter of the International Computer Archive of Modern English 9: 3-28.

Summarizes recent research at Brown, Bergen, and elsewhere.

________. 1987. Syntax versus orthography: Problems in the automatic parsing of idioms. In Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 110-119

Boggess, Lois. 1988. Two Simple Prediction Algorithms to Facilitate Text Production. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing. Association for Computational Linguistics: 33-40.

Booth, B. M. 1985. Revising CLAWS. Newsletter of the International Computer Archive of Modern English (9): 29-35.

Discusses some research with the tagging and dismabiguation system used for the Lancaster - Oslo/Bergen Corpus of British English.

Bradley, Diane C. 1983. Computational Distinctions of Vocabulary Type. Bloomington, Indiana : Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Motivates the distinction of open and closed classes in the lexicon, based upon various psycholinguistic investigations.

Burton, N. G. and J. C. R. Licklider. 1955. Long-Range Constraints in the Statistical Structure of Printed English. American Journal of Psychology (68): 650-653.

C (top)

Card, William and Virginia McDavid. 1966. English Words of Very High Frequency. College English 27: 596-604.

Carroll, John B. 1967. On Sampling from a Lognormal Model of Word-Frequency Distribution. In Kučera and Francis (1967): 406-413.

Carroll, J. B., P. Davies, and B. Richman (eds.). 1971. The American Heritage Word-Frequency Book. NY: American Heritage Publishing Co./ Boston: Houghton - Mifflin.

Chafe, Wallace L. 1970. Meaning and the Structure of Language. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Cherry, Colin. 1957. On Human Communication, 3d ed., 1978. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Çinlar, Erhan. 1975. Introduction to Stochastic Processes. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

A thorough introduction to the mathematics of stochastic process theory, with special emphasis on Markov chains.

Choueka, Yaacov. 1980. Computerized Full-Text Retrieval Systems and Research in the Humanities: The Responsa Project. Computers and the Humanities 14: 153-169.

________. 1987. RESPONSA: An operational full-text retrieval system with linguistic components for large corpora. Manuscript. Ramat-Gan, Israel : Bar-Ilan University Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, December, 1987.

Choueka, Yaacov and Serge Lusignan. 1985. Disambiguation by Short Contexts. Computers and the Humanities (19): 147-157.

Discusses performance of native speakers at choosing correct interpretations for ambiguous words, given short contexts (1 or 2 words on each side). Note that the first printing of this article omits a number of important diagrams, and has other printing errors.

Church, Kenneth W. 1988. A Stochastic Parts Program and Noun Phrase Parser for Unrestricted Text. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing. Association for Computational Linguistics: 136-143.

Presents a dynamic-programming approach to disambiguation, using probabilities of tag triples, and reports its application to large quantities of text, particularly newspaper reportage.

Clark, Eve V. and Herbert H. Clark. 1979. When Nouns Surface as Verbs. Language 55, no. 4: 767-811.

Condon, E. V. 1928. Statistics of vocabulary. Science 67: 300.

An early presentation of the relationship later known as Zipf’s law.

Coombs, James H., Allen H. Renear, and Steven J. DeRose. 1987. Markup Systems and the Future of Scholarly Text Processing. In Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery (30,11): 933-947. (online, ACM) (online, XML CoverPages) (online, NJIT)

Cottrell, Garrison W. and Steven L. Small. 1984. Viewing Parsing as Word Sense Discrimination: A Connectionist Approach. In B. G. Bara and G. guida (eds.), Computational Models of Natural Language Processing: 91-119. Elsevier Science Publishers.

Courtney, Rosemary. 1983. Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Harlow, Essex, England : Longman.

Cover, Thomas M. and Roger C. King. 1978. A Convergent Gambling Estimate of the Entropy of English. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-24, no. 4: 413-421.

D (top)

Damerau, Frederick J. 1971. Markov Models and Linguistic Theory: An Experimental Study of a Model for English. Janua Liguarum Series Minor, vol. 95. The Hague: Mouton.

Dano, Sven. 1975. Nonlinear and Dynamic Programming. New York: Springer-Verlag.

A handbook of dynamic programming methods, with a variety of applications discussed.

DeRose, Steven J. 1985. Grammatical Category Disambiguation in Linear Time by Computers. Thesis. Providence: Brown University Department of Linguistics.

Reviews previous disambiguation algorithms. Introduces an efficient disambiguation method using tag pair probabilities, and compares it to the Lancaster - Oslo/Bergen CLAWS system.

________. 1988. Grammatical Category Disambiguation by Statistical Optimization. Computational Linguistics (14, 1): 31-39. (online)

Presents DeRose (1985) and describes the disambiguation algorithm’s relationship to dynamic programming.

Dewey, G. 1923. Relative Frequency of English Speech Sounds. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press. Cited in Condon (1928).

Dreyfus, Stuart E. and Law, Averill M. 1977. The Art and Theory of Dynamic Programming. New York: Academic Press.

A textbook on dynamic programming methodology.

E (top)

Efron, Bradley and Ronald Thisted. 1976. Estimating the number of unseen species: How many words did Shakespeare know? Biometrika 63(3): 435-447.

Ejerhead, Eva. 1987. Finding Noun Phrases and Clauses in Unrestricted Text: On the Use of Stochastic and Finitary Methods in Text Analysis. Manuscript. AT&T Bell Labs, and the University of Umea Department of Linguistics. S-90187 Umea, Sweden. Cited in Ejerhead (1988).

________. 1988. Finding Clauses in Unrestricted Text by Finitary and Stochastic Methods. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing. Association for Computational Linguistics: 219-227.

Compares parser-based and stochastic methods for clause identification in unrestricted English text. Shows 13% and 6.5% error rates, respectively.

Estoup, J. B. 1916. Gammes Sténographiques, 4th ed. Paris. Cited in Mandelbrot (1961).

F (top)

Francis, W. Nelson. 1964a. A standard sample of present-day English for use with digital computers. Report to the U.S. Office of Education on Cooperative Research Project no. E-007. Providence: Brown University.

________. 1965. A Standard Corpus of Edited Present-Day American English for Computer Use. In Jess B. Bessinger, Jr., Stephen M. Parrish, and Harry M. Parrish (eds.), Literary Data Processing Conference Proceedings, September 9, 10, 11, 1964. Armonk, NY : IBM Corporation: 79-89.

A presentation of the newly-developed Brown Corpus, how it was derived, and mention of some of the first research using the Corpus.

________. 1979. Problems of assembling and computerizing large corpora. Bergenholtz, H. and B. Schraeder (eds.), Empirishe Textwissenschaft: Aufbau und Auswertung von Text-Corpora. Königstein: Scriptor Verlag: 110-123. Reprinted in Johansson (ed.) 1982.

________. 1980. A tagged corpus — problems and prospects. S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, and J. Svartvik (eds.) Studies in English Linguistics, for Randolph Quirk. London and New York: Longman: 192-209.

Francis, W. Nelson and Henry Kučera. 1979. Manual of Information to accompany A Standard Corpus of Present-Day Edited American English, for use with Digital Computers, revised and amplified edition. Providence, Rhode Island: Department of Linguistics, Brown University.

The Brown Corpus is a standard sample of 1 million running words of English prose, with grammatical tags. It has been used in many lexical, stylistic, and syntactic studies of English.

________. 1982. Frequency Analysis of English Usage: Lexicon and Grammar. Boston, Massachusetts : Houghton-Mifflin Company.

Extends the work of Kučera and Francis (1967) on the basis of the grammatically tagged Brown Corpus. Provides categorially-based rather than graphemically based lexicostatistics and analysis.

Fraser, B. 1970. Idioms within a transformational grammar. In Foundations of Language 6[sic]: 22-42. Cited in Nagy (1978).

Friberg, Barbara and Timothy Friberg (eds.). 1981a. Analytical Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Baker Book House.

An edition of the Greek New Testament with the grammatical category of each word shown interlinearly. Also available in machine-readable form.

Friberg, Barbara and Timothy Friberg. 1981b. A Computer-Assisted Analysis of the Greek New Testament Text. In Computing in the Humanities, ed. Peter Patton. Heath Books: 15-51.

A description of the tagged text of Friberg and Friberg (1981a). The computer assistance to which the title alludes included generating concordances and applying tags to words considered unambiguous.

G (top)

Garside, Roger. The CLAWS word-tagging system. In Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 30-41.

Garside, Roger and Fanny Leech. 1985. A Probabilistic Parser. In Proceedings of the Second Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Association for Computational Lingustics: 166-170.

________. 1987. The UCREL probabilistic parsing system. In Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 66-81.

Garside, Roger and Geoffrey N. Leech. 1982. Grammatical tagging of the LOB Corpus: General Survey. In Johansson (1982): 110-117.

Garside, Roger, G. N. Leech, and G. R. Sampson (eds.). 1987. The Computational analysis of English. Harlow, Essex, England : Longman.

Geens, Dirk. 1984. Semantic Analysis Automated for Large Computer Corpora and Their Exploitation. In J. Aarts and W. Meijs (1984).

Gigley, Helen M. 1982. A Computational Neurolinguistic Approach to Processing Models of Sentence Comprehension. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Department of Computer and Information Science, Technical Report 82-9.

Greene, Barbara B. and Gerald M. Rubin. 1971. Automated Grammatical Tagging of English. Providence, Rhode Island: Department of Linguistics, Brown University.

Describes the TAGGIT program and method for tagging the Brown Corpus.

H (top)

Hee, K. M. van. 1978. Bayesian Control of Markov Chains. Mathematical Centre Tract 95. Amsterdam: Mathematica Centrum.

Hirst, Graeme. 1983. Semantic Interpretation Against Ambiguity. Ph.D. Dissertation. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Department of Computer Science.

Hockett, Charles F. 1953. Review of Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver (1953), The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Language 29: 69-93.

________. 1968. The State of the Art. Janua Linguarum Series Minor, vol. 73. The Hague: Mouton.

________. 1961. Grammar for the Hearer. In Jakobson (1961): 220-236.

Hogaboam, T. W. and C. A. Perfetti. 1975. Lexical Ambiguity and Sentence Comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior (14): 265-274.

Hubert, Pierre and Dominique Labbe. 1988. A model of vocabulary partition. Literary and Linguistic Computing 3: 223-225.

Hughes, John J. 1987. Bits, Bytes, and Biblical Studies. Grand Rapids, MI : Zondervan.

A broad reference guide to computer tools and resources for research in Biblical and Classical Studies.

I (top)

J (top)

Jakobson, Roman (ed.). 1961a. The Structure of Language and its Mathematical Aspects. Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics, vol. 12. Providence: American Mathematical Society.

Jakobson, Roman. 1961b. Linguistics and Communication Theory. In Jakobson (1961a): 245-252.

Jeffrey, Richard C. 1983. The Logic of Decision, 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fairly formal treatment of logical and analytic methods in decision making. Treats Bayesian methods via matrices.

Jelinek, Frederick. 1968. Probabilistic Information Theory. NY: McGraw-Hill.

________. 1985. Self-Organized Language Modelling for Speech Recognition. Manuscript. Yorktown Heights, NY : IBM T. J. Watson Research Center.

Jelinek. 1986? Markov Source Modeling of Text Generation. Manuscript.

Johansson, Stig. 1980. Corpus-based studies of British and American English. S. Jacobson (ed.), Papers from the Scandinavian Symposium on Syntactic Variation, Stockholm, May 18-19, 1979. StockHolm Studies in English 52. StockHolm: Almquist & Wiksell: 85-100.

Johansson, Stig (ed.). 1982. Computer Corpora in English Language Research. Bergen: Norwegian Computing Center for the Humanities.

A collection of articles detailing work with various corpora of English text, mainly the Brown, LOB, and London-Lund corpora. The articles are mainly drawn from a symposium on Computer corpora in research and teaching, held at Bergen in 1981.

Johansson, Stig. 1985. Grammatical Tagging and Total Accountability. In S. Bächman & G. Kjellmer (eds.), Papers on language and literature presented to Alvar Ellegård and Erik Frykman. Gothenburg Studies in English 60. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothobergensis: 208-220.

Johansson, Stig and Mette-Cathrine Jahr. 1982. Grammatical tagging of the LOB Corpus: Predicting word class from word endings. In Johansson (1982): 118-146.

K (top)

Kawamoto, A. 1985. Dynamic Processes in the (Re)Solution of Lexical Ambiguity. Ph.D. thesis. Providence: Brown University Department of Psychology. Cited in Anderson and Murphy (1986).

Kazman, Rick. 1986. Structuring the Te[x]t of the Oxford English Dictionary through Finite State Transduction. Masters Thesis. Waterloo, Ont : University of Waterloo Department of Computer Science.

Kelly, Edward F. and Philip J. Stone. 1975. Computer Recognition of English Word Senses. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Kemeny, John G., J. Laurie Snell, and Gerald L. Thompson. 1956. Introduction to Finite Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Kirkpatrick, Scott, C. D. Gelatt, Jr., and M. P. Vecchi. 1983. Optimization by Simulated Annealing. Science 220, no. 4598 (13 May): 671-680.

Klein, S. and Simmons, R. F. 1963. A Computational Approach to Grammatical Coding of English Words. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (10): 334-47.

Presents a frame-rule based system for disambiguation using a small set of categories and texts.

Knuth, Donald E. 1973. The Art of Computer Programming: vol. 1, Fundamental Algorithms. 2d ed. Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley.

Kučera, Henry. 1975. Computers in Linguistics and Literary Studies. Providence: Brown University Department of Linguistics.

________. 1981. The Learning of Grammar. Perspectives in Computing (1): 28-35.

________. 1982. Markedness and Frequency: A Computational Analysis. In COLING 82, 167-173.

Presents a critique of the markedness/frequency correlation by statistical analysis of verb tenses in the Brown Corpus.

Kučera, Henry and W. Nelson Francis. 1967. Computational Analysis of Present-day American English. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Press.

Presents lexico-statistical results from the (untagged) Brown Corpus, including full word-frequency tables, organized by frequency and alphabetically.

L (top)

Lackowski, Peter. 1963. Words as Grammatical Primes. Language (39): 211-215.

Leech, Geoffrey, Roger Garside, and Erik Atwell. 1983. The Automatic Grammatical Tagging of the LOB Corpus. Newsletter of the International Computer Archive of Modern English (7): 13-33.

Discusses the application of CLAWS to the LOB Corpus of British English.

Leech, Geoffrey. General Introduction to Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 1-15.

Liu, Chung L. 1977. Elements of Discrete Mathematics. New York: McGraw-Hill.

M (top)

Mandelbrot, B. 1961. On the Theory of Word Frequencies and on Related Markovian Models of Discourse. In Jakobson (1961): 190-219.

Marshall, Ian. 1983. Choice of Grammatical Word-Class Without Global Syntactic Analysis: Tagging Words in the LOB Corpus. Computers in the Humanities (17): 139-150.

An early presentation of the CLAWS algorithm.

________. 1987. Tag Selection Using Probabilistic Methods. In Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 42-56.

Martin, James John. 1967. Bayesian Decision Problems and Markov Chains. NY: John Wiley and Sons.

McMillan, Brockway. 1953. The Basic Theorems of Information Theory. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 24 (June, 1953): 196-219. Reprinted In Slepian (1974): 57-80.

Miller, George A. and Noam Chomsky. 1963. Finitary Models of Language Users. In R. Duncan Lee, Robert A. Bush, and Eugene Galanter (eds.), Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 2: 420-491. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Miller, George A. and Edwin B. Newman. 1958. Tests of a Statistical Explanation of the Rank-Frequency Relation for Word in Written English. American Journal of Psychology (71): 209-258.

Miller, George A., E. B. Newman, and E. A. Friedman. 1958. Length-Frequency Statistics for Written English. Information and Control 1: 370-389.

Miller, George A. and J. A. Selfridge. 1950. Verbal context and the recall of meaningful material. American Journal of Psychology (63): 176-185.

Milne, Robert. 1986. Resolving Lexical Ambiguity in a Deterministic Parser. Computational Linguistics (12,1): 1-12.

Minieka, Edward. 1978. Optimization of Algorithms for Networks and Graphs. New York: M. Dekker.

Morton, J. 1982. Disintegrating the Lexicon: An Information Processing Approach. In Mehler, Jacques; Walker, Edward C. T.; and Garret, Merrill, eds. Perspectives on Mental Representation. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 134-149.

Mosteller, Frederick and David L. Wallace. 1984. Applied Bayesian and Classical Inference: The Case of the Federalist Papers. 2d ed. of Inference and Disputed Authorship: The Federalist, 1964. New York: Springer-Verlag. .

N (top)

Nadas, Arthur. 1984. Estimation of Probabilities in the Language Model of the IBM Speech Recognition System. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ASSP-32, no. 4 (August): 859-861.

Nagy, William. 1978. Some Non-Idiom Larger-Than-Word Units in the Lexicon. In Donka Farkas, Wesley M. Jacobsen, and Karol W. Todrys. Papers from the Parasession on the Lexicon: 289-300. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Discusses idioms per se, as opposed to quasi-idiomatic constructions, and proposes a continuum of productivity and semantic opacity.

Newman, Paula S. 1988. Combinatorial Disambiguation. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing: 243-252. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Discusses combinatorial methods for optimizing evaluation of searches in nondeterministic parsing of semantically ambiguous sentences.

Nunn, H. P. V. 1979. A Short Syntax of New Testament Greek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A concise pedagogical grammar of New Testament Greek.

O (top)

Oostdijk, N. 1988. A Corpus Linguistic Approach to Linguistic Variation. Literary and Linguistic Computing (3,1): 12-25.

Oshika, Beatrice T., Filip Machi, Bruce Evans, and Janet Tom. 1988. Computational Techniques for Improved Name Search. In Proceedings of the Second Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, 9-12 February 1988, Austin, TX. Association for Computational Linguistics.

Owen, M. L. 1987. Evaluating Automatic Grammatical Tagging of Text. Newsletter of the International Computer Archive of Modern English (11): 18-26.

P (top)

Q (top)

Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, and J. Svartvik. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of Contemporary English. New York: Longman.

Includes a list of generally productive English affixes, along with definitions and constraints on the categories which may receive them.

R (top)

Raymond, Darrell R. and Frank William Tompa. 1987. Hypertext and the New Oxford English Dictionary. In Proceedings of Hypertext ’87. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Department of Computer Science: 143-153. .

Renouf, Antoinette. 1984. Corpus Development at Birmingham University. In Aarts and Meijs (1984): 3-40.

Rieger , Chuck and Steve Small. 1979. Word Expert Parsing. Technical Report NSG-7253, March 1979. College Park: University of Maryland Department of Computer Science.

Robinson, Jane J. 1982. DIAGRAM: A Grammar for Dialogues. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery (25, 1): 27-47. Cited in Newman (1988).

Ryder, Joan and Edward C. T. Walker. 1982. Two Mechanisms of Lexical Ambiguity. In Mehler, Jacques; Walker, Edward C. T.; and Garret, Merrill, eds. Perspectives on Mental Representation. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 134-149.

S (top)

Sampson, Geoffrey. 1987a. Probabilistic Models of Analysis. In Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 16-29.

________. 1987b. Alternative grammatical coding systems. In Garside, Leech, and Sampson (1987): 165-183.

Schubert, Lenhart K. 1986. Are There Preference Trade-offs in Attachment Decisions? Proceedings of AAAI-86: 601-605. Cited in Newman (1988).

Shannon, Claude E. 1948a. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Part I. Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27: 379-423 (July). Reprinted In Slepian (1974): 5-18.

________. 1948b. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Part II. Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 623-656 (October). Reprinted In Slepian (1974): 19-29.

The 2-part article which introduced the key concepts of Information Theory.

________. 1951. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. Bell System Technical Journal 30: 50-64.

Analyzes the information content and redundancy of printed English at the character level.

Shannon, Claude E. and W. Weaver. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Reprinted, Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 1971.

Sinclair, J. M. 1987. Looking Up: An Account of the COBUILD Project in lexical computing. London: Collins ELT.

A collection of papers describing a pedagogical English dictionary developed by Collins and a team at the University of Birmingham with careful reference to a large corpus of actual usage, and careful attention to the conceptual structure of definitions.

________. 1987a. Grammar in the Dictionary . In Sinclair (1987): 104-115.

Slepian, David, ed. 1974. Key Papers in The Development of Information Theory. New York: IEEE Press.

Reprints of papers from the history of information theory.

Smith, David K. 1982. Network Optimization Practice: A Computational Guide. New York: Halstead Press.

Smith, Raoul N. 1973. Probabilistic Performance Models of Language. Janua Linguarum Series minor, vol. 150. The Hague: Mouton.

A very readable introduction to the fundamental concepts of information theory and related probabilistic analyses of natural language.

Smyth, Herbet Weir. 1976. Greek Grammar, tenth printing; rev. Gordon M. Messing. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

A standard grammar of Classical Greek.

Solso, R. L. and J. F. King. 1976 Frequency and versatility of letters in the English language. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation 8: 283-286.

Solso, R. L., P. F. Barbuto Jr., and C. L. Juel. 1979 Bigram and trigram frequencies and versatilities in the English language. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation 11: 475-484.

Solso, R. L. and C. L. Juel. 1980 Positional frequency and versatility of bigrams for two- through nine-letter English words. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation 12: 297-343.

Steen, Gert J. van der. 1982. A Treatment of Queries in Large Text Corpora. In Johansson (1982): 49-65.

Svartvik, Jan and Mats Eeg-Olofsson. 1982. Tagging the London - Lund Corpus of Spoken English. In Johansson (1982): 85-109.

T (top)

Thisted, Ronald and Bradley Efron. 1987. Did Shakespeare write a newly-discovered poem? Biometrika 74(3): 445-455.

Thomason, Michael G. 1986. Syntactic Pattern Recognition: Stochastic Languages. In Young Fu (ed.), Handbook of Pattern Recognition and Image Processing: 119-142. New York: Academic Press.

Presents the theory of probabilistic automata and their relation to formal grammars, as well as the notion of probabilistic acceptance.

Thorndike, Edward L. and Irving Lorge. 1944. Teacher’s Word Book of 30,000 words (3rd ed.). New York Teachers College, Columbia University. (online, 3rd ed.) (online, 1st ed.)

U (top)

University of Chicago Press. 1982. The Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

V (top)

W (top)

Wal, J. van der. 1981. Stochastic Dynamic Programming: successive aproximations and nearly optimal strategies for Marko decision processes and Markov games. Mathematical Centre Tract 139. Amsterdam: Mathematica Centrum.

Walker, Donald E. and William H. Paxton, cum alia. 1977. Procedures for Integrating Knowledge in a Speech Understanding System. SRI Technical Note 143. Cited in Newman (1988).

Willis, J. C. 1924. Age and Area. London and New York: Cambridge University Press. Cited in Mandelbrot (1961).

Winograd, Terry. 1983. Language as a Cognitive Process. Vol. 1: Syntax. Reading, Massachusetts : Addison-Wesley.

An excellent introduction to the fundamental syntactic issues in natural language processing.

Wood, C. C. 1978. Variations on a Theme by Lashley: Lesion Experiments on the Neural Model of Anderson, Silerstein, Ritz, and Jones. Psychological Review (85,6), 582-591.

________. 1980. Interpretation of Real and Simulated Lesion Experiments. Psychological Review (87,5), 474-476.

________. 1982. Implications of Simulated Lesion Experiments for the Interpretation of Lesions in Real Nervous Systems. In Michael A. Arbib, David Caplan, and John C. Marshall (eds.), Neural Models of Language Processes. New York: Academic Press, 485-509.

X (top)

Y (top)

Yule, G. Udny. 1944. The statistical study of literary vocabulary. Cambridge University Press.

Z (top)

Zipf, George Kingsley. 1935. The Psycho-Biology of Language, 2d ed. Reprinted 1965, Cambridge : The MIT Press.

________. 1949. Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort: An Introduction to Human Ecology, 2d ed. Reprinted 1965, New York: Hafner Publishing Company.